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◆Part1 Languages and Alphabets
○About 4,000 languages are spoken throughout the world today.
English is spoken by 490,000,000 people.
○"Linguistics" means "言語学” in Japanese.
○"Phonemics" means "音素論" in Japanese.
○"Morphology" means "形態学" in Japanese.
○"Philology" means "史的言語学." in Japanese.
○"Hieroglyphic" means "象形文字; 絵文字” in Japanese.
○"Pictographs" are picture signs and symbols that tell a story.
○"Syllabary" means "音節文字表” in Japanese.
ex.> the Japanese syllabary 日本語の五十音図, かな表.
3.Sign and Symbol Languages
◆Part2 Letter Sounds and Words
1.Vowel and Consonant Sounds
○"schwa" means "アクセントのないあいまい母音; about の a /ə/，circus の u /ə/など” in Japanese.
"syllable" means "音節” in Japanese.
3.Spelling Sounds and Words
○Five Basic Rules for Spelling
1.Words containing ie or ei
2.Silent or final e
4.Consonant preceded by a vowel
◆Part3 Using the Dictionary
Synonyms and Antonyms
”Acronyms" means "頭字語" in Japanese.
◆Part4 Parts of Speech
Common and Proper Nouns, Concreat and Abstract Nouns, Collective Nouns, Compound Nouns, Singular and Plural Nouns
Personal and Prossessive Pronouns,Demonstrative Pronouns, Indefinite Pronouns, Reflexive Pronouns, Intensive Pronouns, Interrogative Pronouns
Action and Linking Verbs, Infinitive Form, Verb Tenses, Principal Parts of Verbs, Regular and Irregular Verbs
Common Adjectives, Proper Adjectives, Demonstrative Adjectives
Adverbs describe vwebs, adjective, or other adverbs. Adverbs are used to make meanings clearer or more exact.
A Preposition relates a noun or pronoun to another word in the same sentence.
Conjunctions are words that join words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.
Interjections are words, phrases, and nonsense words that express strong feelings.
9.Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences
Phrases are any groups of two or more words that together from a thought or express one meaning.
Clauses are groups of two or more words that have a subject and a predicate.
Sentences are groups of words that express a complete thought.
10.Combining Sentences to Make Pragraphs
Order of Sentences
◆Part5 Writing Tools
1.Outlines and Story Maps
Outlnes : Skeltons for Organized Writers
Story Map: The Path of Fiction
Circle Story Framework
2.Rough Draft to Final Copy
<1>Read over your outline, notes, or story map.
<2>Follows your outllines or map to write dwon in sentences the main points of the story.
<3>Write down all your thoughts without stopping to check spelling or grammar, or to edit. Put in as much appropriate infomation as you can.
<4>Read over your rough draft for obvious mistakes. Change sentences and paragraphs that do not follow logically. Mark corrections in grammer and puctuation.
<5>Read over the rough draft for style. Consider how you might use some basic tools and techniques to add drama or interest to your writing, Fill in details in your paper, or add minor characters, dialogue, or extra episodes to your fiction.
<6>Put the rough draft aside for a while and then read it over again. Is there anything you want to rewrite? Would you like to show it to a friend or family member? Have you made your points clear? Try reading your work aloud to see if it sounds right. Fine-tune your copy.
<7>Prepare a final draft.
◆Part6 Practical Writing
The word Journal comes from the Latin word diurnalis which means day. Jornal is anther name for a daily diary.
Letters come in two basic forms. Fomal, or bussiness, letters ask for and provide information.
Essays personal opinion. You can wirite an essay about any topic or theme that you feel strongly about.
Reports are factual compositions. They describe the facts about anything events, places, people, animals, plants, planets, stars, products, and more.
News Stories are factual stories that usually have a special structure called a pyramid.
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